Tuesday, October 26, 2010

Explosion of Cosmological Mysteries by Brahmakumaris Spiritual Science

Introduction :

Over the past two millennia or more, man has been concerned with the great mysteries of existence. He has formulated many theories to answer the question: “How and when did this universe or the world come into existence?” Most of the major religions have also tried to solve this cosmic riddle in their own respective way. Similarly, over the last four or five centuries, astronomers, astrophysicists and geologists also have attempted to tackle this question in their own typical ways and have formulated many theories or hypotheses. Many modern scientists believe that the universe originated from a ‘Cosmic Egg’ by a catastrophic explosion called ‘Big Bang’. They rule out its creation by God. On the contrary, many religionists believe that originally, God created the world. The question is which one of these two hypotheses is more rational? Can anyone of these be sustained on the basis of reason or scientific proof? Was the universe created at some point of time or it is eternal?

Present research paper is an analytical review on the scientific perspective of the creation of the world i.e. the ‘Big-bang Theory’ from Brahmakumaris Spiritual Perspective, especially through the scientific and spiritual writings of Rajyogi B.K Jagdish Chander Hassija, a magnificent personality with extra-ordinary power of divine knowledge, to create a clear conception of the cosmological principle. How far this theory of cosmology is applicable for true justice or it is merely a hypothesis, not really a fact, although it has influenced almost all branches of knowledge-system and all human thinking and conduct.

Scientific Perspective on Cosmology :

• Big-bang Theory

The most popular ‘Big-bang theory’ was first proposed by the Belgian astronomer Georges Edward Lemaitre, adopted and popularized by a famous English scientist Sir Arthur Eddington and later, Russian-American astrophysicist George Gamow upheld and propagated enthusiastically and gave it the name as ‘Big-bang Theory’ . In 1927, Lemaitre suggested that at a point of time in the remote past, there existed only one large lump. At that point of time i.e. ‘Zero Time’, the matter and energy of the universe were literally squashed or compressed together into one huge mass, perhaps no more than a few light years in diameter. He called that huge mass the ‘cosmic egg’ because, according to him, the cosmos was born out of it.

Originally, the Matter which formed the cosmic egg was hydrogen gas. Later the sub-atomic particles of hydrogen gas became condensed to form a compressed mass of neutrons called ‘neutronium’. Then that mass of Matter became unstable and at ‘zero time’ the cosmic egg exploded. According to this theory, the fragments of that catastrophic explosion which were sent hurtling out in all directions, became the galaxies. Not only did portions of cosmic egg form the present-day galaxies; but on a more subtle level, the cosmic egg broke up to form various atoms and 103 elements we know today. Here it is not considered whether the theory, concerning the formation of all the 103 elements from original hydrogen or neutronium was possible; but B.K Jagdish has made attempts mainly to shed light on it whether the formation of ‘cosmic egg’ and its subsequent explosion or ‘big-bang’ and the consequent formation of galaxies from it was possible!

Does this theory or hypothesis solve the question of origin?

But here the question arises how did hydrogen or its electrons and protons or neutronium originate?” To answer this question, scientists take support of the concept of Eternity and the Law of Conservation of Mass and Energy. They say that Matter, making up the cosmic egg, was always there because Matter is Eternal and is always conserved; it never gets annihilated.

B.K Jagdish Chander, showing Brahmakumaris’ spiritual perspective says that if Matter forming the cosmic egg was always there; the crucial question is whether the Matter was there in the form of the cosmic egg? If one says : it was always in the form of cosmic egg”, then one would like to ask : In that case, the cosmic egg should have remained stable in that form for, there was nothing else there to disturb it; why did it suddenly (at ‘zero time’) cease to be stable? What led to its explosion after billions of years of stability? What were the forces which, originally, had been keeping it stable and what new forces now, suddenly, brought about explosion? Scientists have no satisfactory answer to these questions on which depends the validity or credibility of this theory.

Is the scientists’ answer satisfactory?

Scientists have tried to solve these and such other problems but the question is whether these have been satisfactorily answered to give it credibility. Scientists render a common answer related to this matter that as mentioned by B.K Jagdish- “Before the ‘cosmic egg’ came into existence, there was an exceedingly thin gas, this gas had its own vastly diffused gravitational field. Gradually, over billions of years, the gas collected and the mass of the gas grew close together. As the substance of the Universe grew more compact, the gravitational field became more intense until, after many billions of years, the Universe went on contracting at a greater and greater speed. In this process of contraction it produced higher and higher temperature as the gas compressed into smaller and smaller volume. This temperature-rise increasingly countered the gravitational contraction and began to slow down the process of contraction. However, the inertia of Matter kept it contracting more and more, till it was past the point where the temperature effect had just balanced gravitation. Finally, the universe contracted to a minimum volume, represented by the cosmic egg. At some point, the outward push of the temperature and of gravitation, finally overcomes the gravitational force and this builds up into a force that results in the ‘big-bang’. In this view, the cosmic egg becomes a momentary object.”

How the ‘cosmic egg’ was first formed?

Newton’s first Law of Motion states that “everything keeps in its state of rest or motion unless there is an external force which is applied to it.” B.K Jagdish puts a series of questions before scientists : “Since there was nothing else besides the thin gas. What led the gas to collect and draw close? Since the force of gravitation was the same as it had remained ‘for billions of years’; how did it increase so as to contraction of the gas-substance? And according to the first Law of Thermo-dynamics or Law of Conservation of Mass or Energy, the total mass and energy in the universe remain the same; they neither increase nor decrease. So again he asks question: what additional force or energy outside the gas-mass originally led the gas-particles to draw closer and closer? No scientist, to this day, has solved this riddle.”

Moreover, none has ever stated specifically the actual size of the cosmic egg or its total mass or the force of explosion that rent it into fragments, so that its pieces hurtled away and managed to attain ‘the escape velocity’ to form galaxies. Also, the question is “If the cosmic egg hurtled its segments to form galaxies, wherefrom did the matter in the space between these galaxies come?” Further, the universe being infinite or of very vast expanse, did the hydrogen gas fill the whole universe or the thin cloud occupied only a part of it? If it filled a part of it, why did it occupy only that much density or thinness and neither more or less? If it filled an infinite space, how could, then, its so weak gravitational field, especially at its farther parts lead it to contraction?

Another question, stated by B.K Jagdish is whether the parts of the cosmic egg that hurtled out and formed galaxies will continue receding from each other forever or their velocity of recession will slowly decline with time and will reach a momentary zero mark? And then, will the galaxies finally begin to come together again, slowly at first and then more and more rapidly and will finally. Condense to form something like the cosmic egg, constituted of hydrogen again? Following the formation of the cosmic egg, will there be another big-bang and will the whole process start over again, in the fashion of the egg giving to the hen and the hen laying an egg and the egg again breaking to give birth to another hen, the series extending to infinity.

If the relationship between the cosmic egg and the universe is as between an egg and a hen, then, where is the question of origin or ‘the beginning’? Where is the irreversible change and the final ending? As the universe is right now, so will it be again an indefinite or infinite number of times, each time after explosion, according to this theory. Thus, it fails to explain any origin in the actual meaning of the term.

• Cosmological Principle

Famous astrophysicists such as Hermann Bondi, Thomas Gold and Fred Hoyle considered ‘big-bang’ to be impossible. After some modifications, they adopted a new model of universe, suggested by an English cosmologist Edward Arthur Milne. Milne assumed that the general scheme of appearance of the universe would be the same from any point in space from where an observer saw it. An observer may be on any galaxy, from there he would find all the galaxies distributed symmetrically about him in all directions. He would find the general density of Matter also the same everywhere. He would find himself at the centre of an observable universe. He termed this concept as the ‘Cosmological Principle’. The Cosmological principle seems to require an infinite universe, for, otherwise one could not imagine himself or herself at its centre by being anywhere. If the universe were finite, one would imagine himself or herself transported on one side and nothing at all on the other. Einstein also assumed only one aspect of the Cosmological Principle when he considered that Matter was distributed evenly in the universe, but he considered the universe to be finite though the finite universe could have in it, infinite galaxies. But a concept of an infinite universe following the Cosmological Principle, could not fit well with the notion of the cosmic egg as possessing a finite size and as exploding into infinite number of galaxies. So, what was the solution to this problem? The scientists got stuck at this point. It would be interesting to know that George Gamow was ready to consider the cosmic egg as of infinite size! But how could then other postulates such as extensive gas cloud etc. fit well with this theory?

• Perfect Cosmological Principle

Hermann Bondi, Thomas Gold and Fred Hoyle favoured the Cosmological Principle but they thought that it was incomplete. For, while it allowed the universe to be unchanged with the observer’s position in space, it did not say anything about his position in time. So, these three scientists believed it logical to suppose that the universe would have to be essentially the same for observers at all times as well as in all places. They termed this the ‘Perfect Cosmological Principle’.

B.K Jagdish here, draws attention of ours regarding the science-based changing of the universe in two important aspects. Firstly, the distance between the galaxies is growing steadily larger, for the galaxies are receding. So, an observer, two billions years afterwards, would not see the galaxies where we see them today. Secondly, hydrogen in the stars is steadily fusing into helium and other complicated atoms, so it means that a time will come when all hydrogen gas will get converted into helium. At least, in these two aspects, the universe cannot be considered steady. These two points are strong evidence against the ‘Perfect Cosmological evidence’, proposed by these three scientists.

• Steady State Theory

To remove this lacuna, the above-mentioned three astronomers advanced a solution in the year 1948. They suggested that hydrogen was continually being created out of nothing. They called this ‘The Continuous Creation Theory’ or ‘The Steady-state Theory’ by assuming that, by the time a galaxy will recede into oblivion, another galaxy in its place would have come up and by the time some hydrogen would be converted into helium, an equal quantity of hydrogen would have been created out of nothing to take place its place, so that to an observer, the universe would always look to be steady or in a ‘steady state’.

Is this Theory Scientific and Rational?

Referring to the First Law of Thermo-dynamics, B.K Jagdish gives comments on the scientists’ justification. He says: No more energy can be ‘created’ so as to be added to it nor can any part of it be ‘destroyed’, to be lessened from it. Over and above this, the assumption that ‘hydrogen is being continually created out of nothing’ seems to be like a fairy tale or a tale of magic. How could something be created out of nothing? The world-famous spiritual text Bhagavad Gita also emphasizes upon the truth of the law of conservation where it is said : “A thing cannot be created out of nothing nor can that which exists be annihilated out of existence”

Again, it is strange that the proponents and protagonists of this theory say that hydrogen can be created out of nothing! Then any other thing also could come out of nothing? The above-named astrophysicists say that ‘the Law of Conservation of Mass and Energy’ is merely as assumption based on the fact that mankind has never observed energy created out of nothing. They say that the requirements of ‘the continuous creation theory’ or ‘steady state theory’ are very small indeed, for, the creation of even one atom of hydrogen per year in a billion litres of space is enough and the creation at this rate will be too small to be detectable by any instrument man possesses.

Obviously, they want to change the Law of Conservation from ‘Energy cannot be created’ to ‘Energy has never been observed to be created’. They do not want to answer the question: “How can hydrogen or any other thing be created out of nothing”. They side-track a very important and fundamental law without any verifiable evidence and a laboratory-proof. The real issue involved is not whether a small or a big quantity of Matter can be created or not, nor the issue is whether the rate of creation is small or great; the very solid issue, it must be noted, is whether something can be created out of nothing. By accepting this proposition, science would change into fantasy or fiction.

Again, they say that the Law of Conservation is merely an assumption based on the fact that mankind has never observed energy to be created out of nothing. In fact, this comment applies to their theory, for that is based on mere assumption and no one has ever observed something being created ‘out of nothing’. Moreover, the question of creation raises so many other questions, connected with it, such as: “Who creates it? How does it get created? And wherefrom does the energy required for carrying out the act of creation come?” All these questions in regard to creation of hydrogen are left unanswered.

Furthermore, the theory of Hoyle at el does not solve the problem of origin of the universe and the galaxies and of hydrogen even if this last be assumed to have been formed out of nothing.

Unproved Assumption

Besides the arbitrary assumption that hydrogen is being continually created out of nothing, there is another assumption of the scientists who propounded the steady-state theory. It is that the galaxies are separating or receding from each other not as a result of some explosion but as a consequence of some more subtle effect. Scientists Hermann Bondi and Raymond Arthur Lyttleton assumed that the positive charge on the proton might be slightly larger than the negative charge on the electron. They thought that if the positive charge of the proton were larger only by a billionth of a billionth of the size of the electron’s negative charge, it would suffice to build up a generally positive charge on all galaxies. But because of being too small, it would not be detectable even by the most sensitive of instruments that man now has. This positive charge on all the galaxies, they thought, would cause the galaxies to repel each other and thus would cause them to undergo a steady mutual recession. As has been pointed out earlier, these scientists have said, in regard to their first assumption, that the rate of creation of hydrogen would be so small that man, with the best available instruments, will not be able to observe it and now, in regard to the positive and negative electric charges also they say that the difference would be so small that, with the best available instruments man would not be able to observe it. Is this scientific way to get a theory accepted? This is the exploitation of man’s weak position because of lack of extremely sophisticated instruments in this field. Simply because man would not be able to detect it, therefore, they want him to accept it! The theory should stand on firm grounds.

As admitted by them, this assumption also is not based on any observation as to the positive charge being slightly greater than the negative charge. This is just a speculation so as to replace the unbelievable ‘big-bang’ theory.

Further, as earlier said, Hoyle and other scientists say that by the time the present galaxies have receded outside the visible universe, new galaxies would have appeared in their place. These new or young galaxies would have been formed from the hydrogen created continually, out of nothing. And, so to an observer, the universe would always look to be same; it would not look empty because of some galaxies having receded out of view because, by the time the old galaxies disappeared, the new ones would have appeared, in their place. But how hydrogen, created out of nothing, would condense and form galaxies? - none of the scientists has explained this. Isn’t this like counting the chickens before the eggs have been hatched?

Here, B.K Jagdish gives the concluding note relating to this cosmological principle based on spiritual knowledge of Brahmakumaris that it would seem that the theory aims at an eternal universe in which things were not created in the remote past by a big-bang but are being created continually. The big-bang theory also, as shown earlier, leads to the concept of an eternal universe where a cosmic egg explodes into galaxies etc and where galaxies contract into a cosmic ball and the cosmic ball explodes again to form galaxies and the universe. And, yet both these theories do not explain any origin, in real sense of term. Why not, then, believe that the world is eternal and things are continually changing their form so that, after a cycle, they come back to have the form and the position from where they started? Would not that be more rational and more scientific, for we practically find this cyclic recurrence of the ecclesiastical phenomena and of many other natural phenomena? The world in that concept would be a cosmic drama which repeats itself after having occurred and re-occurred. It would thus be eternal. Astrophysicists and cosmologists are now coming closer to the belief that the world has no beginning.

Prof. Jayant V. Narlikar has also ruled out the concept of a ‘beginning’ for the universe. Commenting on the belief in ‘the continuous creation out of nothing’- on which Steady State Theory rests- he presented the picture of cow and grass in a blank frame to ridicule such scientists. He said : “Out of nothing, these scientists said there was grass. When asked where was grass, they said the cow ate it. Asked about the cow, they said it was not there as the cow has already eaten the grass and gone.”

Conclusion :

From the above critical analysis it may be concluded that though Science has explored many material mysteries and has given the transparent pictures for the benefit of mankind, but sometimes it shows some missing points to create a sound understanding. At that time ‘Meta Science’ or ‘Spirituality’ is required to deal with that matter. B.K Jagdish, a spiritual and scientific personality as he analyzed the cosmological big-bang theory in such a proper manner that it seems as a purely science-based method of justification and quite rational. To say, Science has developed many advanced equipments to incorporate in its findings, but it should make collaboration with Spirituality to unveil such mysteries. That’s why it should be noted that Science and Spirituality both are the two sides of same coin. Spiritual Science controls the invalid directions of Material Science and channelizes it on a right track to demystify the enigma.

References :

1. The Eternal World Drama (Part-II of the series, titled ‘Eternal Drama of Souls, Matter and God’), B.K. Jagdish Chander Hassija, Prajapita Brahma Kumaris Ishwariya Vishwa Vidyalaya, Pandav Bhavan, Mount Abu, Rajasthan, 1985, 1st Edition.

2. The Evolutionary Universe, George Gamow, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1970.

3. The Universe : From Flat Earth to Quasar, Isaac Asimov, Penguin Books, New York, 1967.

4. Galaxies, Nuclei and Quasars, Fred Hoyle, Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1965.

5. Astronomy, Fred Hoyle, Doubleday and Co. Inc, New York, 1962.

6. Bhagavad Gita, Gita Press, Gorakhpur, 2000.

7. Einstein’s Universe, Nigel Calder, The Viking Press, New York, 1979.

8. Science and Spirituality, B.K. Jagdish Chander, Brahmakumaris World Spiritual University, Pandav Bhawan, Mount Abu, 1988.

9. The Exploding Universe, Illustrated Weekly of India, J.V. Narlikar, Nov.6-12, 1983.

10. Ancient Indian Insights And Modern Science (A UGC Project), Kalpana M. Paranjape, Bhandarkar Oriental research Institute, Pune, 1996, 1st print.

Wednesday, April 14, 2010

Brahmakumaris’ Dynamic Exposition on “Sat-Cit-Ānanda

Presented paper on 1st Asian Philosophy Congress, Indian Council for Philsophical Research, held at Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi (6th-9th March 2010).


A compact and universal knowledge is required for the whole mankind to unveil the mystical realities of the universe. That realm of knowledge is none other than Spirituality because it possesses the rationalism of Science, faith of Religion, integrated vision of Philosophy and common sense. In this regard, by dint of Brahmākumārīs spiritual wisdom, B.K Jagdish, a dynamic and versatile personality, blessed with the power of divine intellect has scientifically mentioned in his writings about the physical world and the spiritual reality to give a comprehensive and transparent world-view.

Present research paper will focus on the very profound definition “Sat-Cit-Ānanda” from Brahmākumārīs’ perspective although many deliberations have been thrown out on it from various view-points of Indian philosophical systems.

One of the most important Indian philosophical system namely Advaita Vedānta or Monism states that Brahman, the Ultimate Supreme Reality has only the characteristics of ‘Sat’ or Existence, ‘Cit’ or Consciousness or Knowledge and ‘Ānanda’ or Bliss. (Satyam Jñānam Anantam Brahma, Tait.Upa. 2.1; Vijñānam Ānandam Brahma, Brih.Upa. 3.9.28). According to Vaişņava Vedānta, ‘Sat’ characteristics of Brahman is in Universe and hence it is real. Again Nyāya, Sāmkhya and other philosophical systems define Ātman or Puruşa as a possessor of the quality- Knowledge or Consciousness. (Jñānādhikaraņam Ātmā, Tar.Sam; Puruşastu cetanah, Sām.Kā.Vri.). And modern scientists and physicists express their opinions about the only one reality’s existence i.e. Matter though it is changing continuously.

Here, Brahmākumārīs’ dynamic exposition on this subject-matter is likely to be very rational and justifiable. According to this modern spiritual philosophy, there exists one entity which is only Existent but possessed neither of Consciousness nor of Bliss; there exists a second one which is Existence and Consciousness or Knowledge merely, besides the third i.e. Supreme Reality Himself who possesses all these three attributes. While the first is Matter, the second refers to individual Souls, of whom the third is the Master or God.

Concept of Realities

Now, the concept of permanent realities expounded by Brahmākumārīs is going to be discussed here with scientific explorations.

Nature of Matter

Matter is everything that exists in the physical universe. The starting point of modern physics, Quantum Theory developed by Max Planck and further named by Einstein, brought a great change in the physicists’ concept of matter. Previous to Planck’s theory, most physicists conceived of the world of nature or matter as a continuum. But the Quantum theory clearly states that the ‘Continuous view’ of the world is replaced by a ‘discrete’ one.

Again, Science has established that matter is composed of sub-atomic particles viz. electrons, neutrons and protons. Prior to Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, matter and energy were considered to be different entities. Matter was considered to be inert and tangible and was characterized by a property called mass whereas energy was considered to be active, invisible and without mass. But Einstein showed that mass and energy are equivalent and that the property called mass, is simply concentrated energy. Einstein said that mass and energy are inter-changeable. The universally recognized 1st law of Thermo-dynamics says that energy can neither be created nor destroyed; it can only be transformed from one form to another. The quality of matter degenerates, known as the process of entropy (2nd law of Thermo-dynamics), due to the effect of time and motion. The degeneration of the quality of matter also corresponds to the degeneration of the quality of human souls.
On the basis of this law, there is no denying factor which proves that matter or energy is not real or it is something imaginary or illusion. This is the view-point of modern scientists and physicists.

Traditional Indian spirituality (Advaita Vedānta) says “Brahma satyam Jagat mithya”, meaning matter is not real and the non-material dimension beyond human perception is the only real reality. The philosophical foundation for this is that real is defined as that which does not change. Anything material is in a state of flux and therefore does not satisfy the criteria for what is real. The traditional concept is that if something is divided it can’t be real; therefore things which are real can’t be divided. It follows that there can be no distinction between God, soul and matter; however, if they are not distinct from one another, then there would be stasis, i.e. no movement and no activity.

On this ground, Brahmakumaris states its own specific view that within the one integrated whole i.e. cosmos, there are three individual and separate realities: immutable God, souls that mutate but are always souls; and matter which also declines in quality corresponding to the decline in souls. This ‘machinery’ is in perpetual motion because each time it reaches maximum depletion and ultimately, incorporeal Supreme Soul restores everything to its original perfection. Human beings can’t deduce this from their perceptions because they are inside the system. Only the incorporeal immutable one is outside it and in a position to know and observe the system and its process.

In this paradigm the three distinct and eternal realities- souls, God and matter- interact perpetually. They never merge or become interchangeable. Souls and matter go through eternally repeating cycles. Although there is change within the cycle, each cycle is changeless, thus satisfying the criteria for the real being permanent.

Nature of Soul

A soul is an infinitesimal pinpoint of self-aware, spiritual light. A soul can neither be created nor destroyed but its quality and strength are subject to change and degeneration over time. Souls are numerous, individual and eternal. Souls originally dwell in the soul-world or Brahma-loka i.e. far beyond this material world with the Parent or Supreme Soul in the incorporeal, inactive, thoughtless and calm state. But when they come down to this earth and take birth in the form of bearing bodies, they become known as individual souls. Within body, soul resides in the central point of hypothalamus gland and from there it controls the brain and the whole body. A soul is considered a divine creation because the positive energy of God, Supreme Soul, influences and re-energizes each soul when it has become totally depleted. Unlike matter, souls are conscient and therefore intelligent. They can absorb not only energy but also ideas, powers, spiritual values and qualities. A soul is incorporeal, indivisible and indestructible. During its cycle, it varies from a state of perfect purity to a condition of depletion and impurity according to both the quality of action performed through its material body and the degenerating effects of time.

Nature of Supreme Soul or God

God is Supreme Soul, the Omnipotent and Supreme Intelligence. He is incorporeal, eternal and indestructible, ever-pure and unlike souls, is immutable. He is also a soul, the point-source of spiritual energy, but He is supreme among all souls and is not bounded by any actions and reactions. God is the only soul who neither evolves nor degrades. He is the only soul who does not become bound to matter and the cycle of rebirth and remains self-aware for all time. Almighty Supreme Soul dwells perpetually in the highest and most pure region or dimension beyond matter. God is the sustainer of all souls of religions, races and cultures. He is the source of all qualities, virtues, values and wisdom. These treasures are transferred to souls through meditation. Souls are then restored to full self-awareness and the perfection of their original purity. This transference of power, purity, values and qualities is considered the re-creation of the souls.


From the above discussions, it may be concluded that modern science accepts the reality of matter while other philosophical systems also accept Soul and God as eternal realities. Brahmakumaris’ notion is to assimilate science and philosophy and to give a holistic and integrated world-view for the development of humanity with proper logic. The terms Sat, Cit and Ananda used in different philosophical systems mentioned above are reflected in Brahmakumaris’ philosophy as Matter, Soul and God respectively. This single definition ‘Sat-Cit-Ananda’ represents the whole metaphysical entities which are the main foundations of any scientific and philosophical systems. This unique exploration or representation made by Brahmakumaris, directly indicates the trinity of realities.


1. Eternal Drama of Souls, Matter and God, Part-I, B.K. Jagdish Chander, Prajapita Brahma Kumaris Ishwariya Vishva-Vidyalaya, Pandav Bhavan, Mount Abu, Rajasthan, 1998, Rpt.

2. The Eternal World Drama (Part-II of the series, titled ‘Eternal Drama of Souls, Matter and God’), B.K. Jagdish Chander Hassija, Prajapita Brahma Kumaris Ishwariya Vishwa Vidyalaya, Pandav Bhavan, Mount Abu, Rajasthan, 1985, 3rd Edition.

3. Science and Spirituality, B.K. Jagdish Chander, Brahmakumaris World Spiritual University, Pandav Bhawan, Mount Abu, 1988.

4. Parallels between Science and Religion and Philosophy and Science - A Critical Review, B.K. Jagdish Chander, Brahma Kumaris Ishwariya Vishwa Vidyalaya, Pandav Bhawan, Mount Abu, Rajasthan, 1994, 1st edition.

5. Sāmkhya-tattva-kaumudī, Vacaspati Mishra, Hindi Trans by Adyaprasad Mishra, Allahabad.

6. Tarka Samgraha, Annam Bhatta, Hindi Commentary, Dayanand Bhargav, Delhi, 2004, Rpt.

7. Brahma-Sūtra Sāmkara Bhāşya, Ratnaprabha Commentary, Bhole Baba, Bharatiya Vidya Prakashan, Delhi, 2004.


Thursday, March 18, 2010

Concept of Consciousness in Advaita Vedanta and Modern Science
(With Special Reference to Brahmakumaris Philosophy)

Presented paper on 18th International Congress of Vedanta, held at University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, MA, USA (16th-19th July 2009).

Introduction :

Philosophy, Modern Science and Spirituality – a compact trinity of the most elevated dimensions of knowledge can definitely explore the real nature of any physical or non-physical entity in this universe and can also give an integrated vision of truth and an integrated personality by which one can achieve perfection in every milieu of the activity.

The object of Science is to know the nature of reality in physical realm. All the scientific explorations aim at discovering certain secrets behind the forces and phenomena of Nature and understanding the laws underlying them. Similarly, Philosophy explores both the realities, mundane and transcendental; but all the established philosophical systems e.g. Advaita Vedānta, Sāmkhya, Nyāya etc. impart explanations on these two realities with their own methods of logic to justify them.

Here in the present paper, endeavours have been made to throw some light on the spiritual perspective of Brahmākumārīs. Spiritual Wisdom which promotes spirituality has the power to synthesize all branches of knowledge integrated into one undifferentiated whole; because it is so logical as to gain support from scientific and philosophical methods of exploration. It gives a comprehensive and clear world-view that verily inspires and unites mankind to a higher level of consciousness and a way of life enriched with the divine qualities. It has the sound blend of knowledge of both mundane and transcendental realities. Brahmākumārīs, an international spirituo-educational institution, shows a special paradigm of spiritual wisdom for all the humanity towards acquiring its culmination. Brahmākumār Jagdish Chander, Chief Spokesperson of this spiritual organization, tries to establish an essence of the true nature of the subject-matter in metaphysics through applying proper logic as well as scientific and philosophical techniques.

Attempts have been made in the present paper to focus on the views of Advaita Vedāntins, Modern Scientists, Physicists and Brahmākumārīs to provide a deep insight into the nature of Consciousness i.e. the Primary Reality.

Advaita Vedāntic View :

Advaita Vedānta is considered as the culmination-point among all the Indian philosophical systems. Referring to the Upanişadic statements, the founder of this Vedāntic school Ādi Śańkarācārya and his followers like Swāmī Vivekānanda have lucidly elucidated on the concept of Consciousness or Self. According to Śańkarācārya, Ātman or Brahman (Transcendental Self) has the nature of undifferentiated consciousness. Ātman is eternal, self-luminous, universal consciousness which shines by its own light and it reveals Jiva (Empirical Self) and all the objects which cannot reveal themselves. It is devoid of enjoying nature (bhoktŗtva) and activity (kartŗtva); but it appears to be an enjoying and active agent owing to its limiting adjuncts. Ever-liberated Ātman is beyond space, time and causality which is non-dual and one (ekamevādvitīyam). The Absolute, Transcendental Supreme Self is the foundation of the empirical universe and the Supreme, infinite Brahman is the essence of Ātman.

Jīva is the Ātman limited or individuated by the adjuncts of the body, the sense-organs, manas, buddhi and ahamkāra. It is the psycho-physical organism. Ātman, the Supreme Self, is one; but it appears to be many individual selves (Jīva) owing to its limiting adjuncts (upādhi). The internal organ (antah-karaņa) is the adjunct of the Ātman and it takes the forms of manas, buddhi, vijñāna and citta. Thus the internal organ in its four-fold form is the individuating principle of the Jīva. Ātman is the transcendental and universal self, while Jīva is the empirical and individual self. Jīva is neither a part nor a modification of the Ātman but it is only its appearance. The adjuncts as body, sense-organs, manas, buddhi and the like are creations of avidyā (ātma-māyā-visarjita) which are not real in nature. Jīva is an imaginary construction of the adjunct of buddhi that has no existence apart from buddhi which is the individuating principle and with the destruction of the psycho-physical organism, Jīva, the individual self, merges in Ātman, the supreme self. The pure consciousness or Brahman is the irrelative, formless, supreme reality that manifests itself in various forms (eko’ham bahu syāma) and the whole universe is its apparent transformation.

Refuting the analogy or example of space occupied by jars and the great space with souls and Brahman respectively, given by Śańkarācārya, Brahmākumār Jagdish states that Souls (Jīva) are conscient beings and have individual samskāra and with the destruction of their respective bodies, they cannot merge into the Supreme Soul who is perfect and omniscient. In fact, the souls can never be as perfect as God; for, if they could, they would not have an occasion to remain in illusion or be in a state of ignorance. It should be remembered that the happiness of one soul affects others. A man’s happy state affects even plants – it has been proved. So, in no way, the analogy of the space of jars etc. suits the typical case of God and souls, of which the former is a perfect conscient being and the latter are under illusion (Māyā or avidyā) and are, therefore, affected and are imperfect and vary even among themselves.

Modern Advaita Vedāntī, Swāmī Vivekānanda gives his view regarding this matter : “According to the Advaitins proper, the followers of Śańkarācārya, the whole universe is the apparent evolution of Brahman. Brahman is the material cause of the universe; but not really, only apparently. The celebrated illustration used is that of the rope and the snake, where the rope appears to be the snake; but was not really so…Even so, the whole universe, as it exists, is that Being. It is unchanged and all the changes we see in it are only apparent. These changes are caused by Deśa, Kāla and Nimitta or according to a higher psychological generalization, by Nāma and Rūpa.”

Again he says : “Modern science has really made the foundations of religion strong… What the metaphysicians call ‘being’, the physicists call ‘matter’; but there is no real fight between the two; both are one. Though an atom is invisible, unthinkable, yet in it are the real power and potency of the universe. That is what the Vedāntist says of Ātman.”

Criticizing the above-mentioned view of Swāmī Vivekānanda, B.K. Jagdish logically renders his statement : " The Monists are not able to explain how God or Brahman totally gave up its divinity, Knowledge or Consciousness. How the immutable became mutable? Since the Monists cannot say that God is mutable, therefore, they say that the transformation is not real, but is only apparent. But, in the case of the forces of Nature or Matter, the scientists say that the transformation is real or factual; it is not apparent or illusory. So the analogy of the snake and the rope is not befitting and the attempt at unification of God, souls and matter is only arbitrary. The parallel of the unified-field theory, cited as an analogy by the Monists is only a contrived one and, in fact, goes against them."

"There is no denying the fact that the things of the world are transitory or momentary. They are changing every moment. But this change is factual and real and this momentary existence also, for that moment, is real. There are so many sub-atomic particles and even if we thought that one of these kinds, say the Quarks, are the ultimate or original form of energy, we know that even that is momentary. But it does not mean that it has only illusory existence or that it does not exist. Moreover, even the Quarks, or whatever be the ultimate or original form of Matter or Nature, are not conscious. So we cannot say that 'the Being' and 'the Matter' are the same. Certainly, we cannot."

Modern Scientists’ Views :

In the light of Modern Science, especially in physiology, it is described that Consciousness and Body are two different entities where the Body changes (because every seven years old cells are replaced by new ones), grows or decays with age; but Consciousness maintains its identity and continuity. If a person be considered as a mere body including brain, the fact of his continuous identity and continuous consciousness cannot be explained.

B.K. Jagdish gives stress on these two realities by saying – The body may get exhausted of physical energy where as the Mind or Consciousness may feel inexhaustibleness of physical, metaphysical or spiritual energy and may, in fact, grow with the years. While the body ages with years, the Mind gets only wiser or more experienced. The heart, which is a part of the body, may grow weaker with age; but the Consciousness or Mind may grow in its power to love or hate. Thus the two are different entities whereas the body is cellular and molecular, i.e. physical and is subject to law of chemistry and physics and physiology. The Mind, Consciousness or Soul is psychic, spiritual or metaphysical.

Many eminent scientists and physicists such as Max Planck, Eugene Wigner, Fritjof Capra and Erwin Schroedinger have thrown much light on this Consciousness in different angles.

(i) Max Planck has said : “Consciousness, I regard as fundamental. I regard Matter as derivative of Consciousness. We cannot get behind consciousness. Everything that we talk about, everything that we regard as existing postulates consciousness.”

The sentence “Matter is derivative of Consciousness”, can be interpreted that both matter and consciousness are non-different, i.e. both are two sides of the same coin. But B.K Jagdish declares that the existence of all the things is known only because of the existence of consciousness. So consciousness is a fundamental reality.

(ii) Nobel physicist Wigner says : “There are two kinds of reality or existence – the existence of my consciousness and the reality of existence of everything else. This later is not absolute, but only relative. Excepting immediate sensations, the content of my consciousness, everything else is a construct.”

Through the Principle of Indeterminacy, Heisenberg finally stated that while observing quantum particles, uncertainty or indeterminacy would always remain and it cannot be eliminated. Einstein, who didn’t believe in this uncertainty principle, said that there must be a ‘hidden variable’ somewhere which is responsible for this uncertainty. In 1961, Wigner gave his statement that it is the Consciousness of the observing scientists which is itself the hidden variable. He asserted that it is impossible to give an accurate and certain description of quantum processes “without explicit reference to consciousness”.

B.K. Jagdish’s comment on this above statement : If Wigner meant that the consciousness of the observer is a material energy which affects the observed particles, he would be wrong; because consciousness is not a form of material energy. Consciousness of the observing scientist most probably affects the quantum particles, but in another way. Consciousness or Thought (which is one form of manifestation of consciousness) itself is non-physical or non-material, but it works through brain. Its own field interacts with the electro-magnetic field of the brain waves at a very subtle level, perhaps, at the level of photons. It is those brain’s waves whose voltage can be measured and field can be determined that affect the quantum particles.

Therefore Matter and Consciousness interact and influence each other; but they are not convertible into each other.

(iii) David Bohm has used the concept of ‘Holon’ in his theory of matter where he called it ‘An implicate order’. The scientists have felt that the inclusion of consciousness as a factor in determining external reality, as Geoffrey Chew has suggested, is an indispensable necessity. Famous scientist Fritjof Capra has asserted that Consciousness is an essential feature of David Bohm’s Holon Theory, according to which the movement of one single particle is connected with the movement of the entire universe.

B.K Jagdish puts his statement : If all these assertions mean that it is necessary to understand that beside Matter, Consciousness also exists as a primary reality and in order to understand the universe, it is essential to understand Consciousness also, then that also is alright. But, if by making the above statements, one means to say that Consciousness and Matter are inter-convertible or that souls and matter are one and the same entity, one changeable into the other, even as the Monists say, then their these assertions are without any foundations. They are mere assumption, unsupported by logic or science.

(iv) Erwin Schroedinger has also given the argument or statement on the concept of consciousness. He contends : “Consciousness is never experienced in the plural, only in the singular… How does the idea of plurality so emphatically opposed by the Upanishadic writers arise at all?... Consciousness finds itself intimately connected with and dependent on the physical state of a limited region of matter - the body… The only possible alternative is simply to keep the immediate experience that consciousness is a singular of which that plural is unknown, that there is only one thing and that, what seems to be a plurality, is merely a series of different aspects of this one thing produced by a deception (Indian Māyā). Similar view has also been seen in the 4th chapter of his book ‘My View of the World’.
Here Schroedinger has delivered this statement in support of Monism. Commenting on this view, B.K. Jagdish states : “Consciousness is never experienced in the plural, only in the singular.” He shows the error committed here is that Schroedinger is taking ‘Consciousness’ and ‘Conscious entities’ as one and the same, whereas the fact is that these are two different entities.

To illustrate this point further, B.K. Jagdish gives an example of ‘fragrance’ and ‘flowers’. ‘Fragrance’ in general sense, is one or singular; but the fragrant flowers – roses, jasmine, lotus etc. are different and many or plural. Each one of these varieties has ‘fragrance’ in singular; but each one of the flowers is also different from others. If, therefore, we keep in mind that ‘consciousness’ finds manifestation in the forms of thoughts, desires, emotions, memory, judgement etc. and these are different from one to the other individual, then we wouldn’t say that souls are not plural. Schroedinger has, therefore, been wrong in identifying ‘Souls’ with ‘Consciousness’ and there too, he has lost sight of the fact that even ‘Consciousness’ as manifested in each individual case, is not the same and therefore, not singular.

(v) Thomas Huxley, British biologist and Darwinist has said : “I understand the main tenet of materialism to be that there is nothing in the universe but matter and force, two primitive factors… It seems to me pretty plain that there is third thing in the universe, to wit, Consciousness, which.. I cannot see to be matter or force or any conceivable modification of either.” Thus according to him “Consciousness is not a material force”.

(vi) Sir John C. Eccles in his book “Self and its Brain” says that the experienced unity (of consciousness or mind) comes not from a neuro-physiological synthesis, but from the proposed integrating character of the self-conscious mind. He made his firm opinion that self or consciousness is not an epiphenomenon of the brain.

(vii) Performing many experiments by stimulating various sites or points on the brain, scientist Penfield came to the conclusion that consciousness is located near the Hypothalamus and the Brainstem and it is not an epiphenomenon of the brain.

(viii) Dr. Raymond A. Moody, in his book “Life After Life” conducting research on ‘the clinically dead’ describes that the soul, the self or the conscious entity doesn’t die with the body; but rather survives after the body has been disposed of.
In this way, modern philosophers and scientists have elaborated much on the area of consciousness with their enlightened views or statements. Now the disposition of Brahmākumārīs depicted with illustrations logically and meaningfully by Brahmākumār Jagdish Chander, is being discussed here.

Brahmākumārīs’ View :

According to Brahmākumārīs’ philosophy, Consciousness is an essential and inherent attribute of the metaphysical energy called Soul, different from the organic and inorganic matter, body and the brain. As electricity is known by various names depending upon its different manifestations such as light, power, heat and electro-magnetic force, so also Consciousness manifests itself in various forms and is named as Mind, Intellect, Memory, Emotion, Impression (Samskāra) and so on. Ego, Mind, Intellect etc. are not material in nature; but the very consciousness or the soul-energy becomes manifest as thoughts, memory etc. as it comes in contact with the material body. The conscient soul functions through consciousness; but the brain limits it and enables it to have an experience of only three-dimensional objects, while without this limiting faculty, the Self can have multi-dimensional experience and exceptional insight. The soul does have an aura which appears in the form of subtle body, having different brightness depending upon the degree of its purity. The Self or soul is a point of light which is spiritual in nature, divine in its original potential scintillating with seven divine qualities – Knowledge, Purity, Happiness, Peace, Love, Bliss and Power, and is different from the mundane light.
Souls (Ātmā) originally dwell in the Soul-world or Brahma-loka, i.e. far beyond this material world with the Parent or Supreme Soul (Paramātmā or Īśvara) in the incorporeal, inactive, thoughtless and calm state. But when they come down to this earth and take birth in the form of bearing the bodies, they become known as individual souls (Jīvātmā). Within body, soul resides in between the two eye-brows, the central point of the Hypothalamus, Peneal and Pituitary glands and from there it controls the brain and the whole body. Souls are plural and are not parts of God. All souls are eternal sons of God. In the state of liberation or release, the soul does not merge into God, who has his separate identity. God or Paramātmā is also a soul, a point of spiritual energy, but He is supreme among all souls and is not bounded by any action and its reactions. He is beyond the limitation of birth and death. He is omnipotent, omniscient and ocean of all divine qualities e.g. knowledge, bliss, peace, purity etc, but is not omnipresent or all-pervasive entity like Brahman of monists. Souls are numerous, individual and immortal. Therefore, the analogies of Sparks to Fire and Rosary etc. given by Advaita Vedāntins, are erroneous or fallacious.

All the knowledge, namely science, is a result of a person’s abilities that are only manifestations of consciousness at various levels. Consciousness is the first or the prime reality; for, without it, all the realities and laws - physical, chemical, mechanical etc. would remain unknown. It is consciousness that knows and can know, or learns and can learn. Consciousness is the knower (Jñātā), while the material forms of reality or the events and phenomena belong to the realm of known or knowable (Jñeya). The use and purposes of material forms are determined by the knower, consciousness, and it is the consciousness who experiences or consumes the physical things. So there is vast difference between ‘I or Self’ and the ‘Matter’ i.e. material, physical, phenomenal or transient. It is ‘I’ or ‘Consciousness’ that makes continuity possible in life and without it, all would be meaningless, purposeless, useless and worthless.

Consciousness is not observable and quantifiable; hence it is out of the scope of science. Therefore, either science should enlarge its scope or it can be studied in the discipline called ‘Spiritual Science’ or ‘Meta Science’. ‘Consciousness’ is the other name for the ‘Self’. We give it the label ‘consciousness’ in order to distinguish it from all that which doesn’t have ‘consciousness,’ i.e. which cannot think, judge, remember, analyze, focus, decide and do such other mental, intellectual or emotional activities. Each one of us is an individual ‘Self’. Consciousness has a moral dimension. All our actions or efforts have some motives underlying them and we employ some means to reach our goals or to attain certain ends. Motives determine our attitudes and outlook and influence our behaviours that are related to Values or ethical principles. In other words, Consciousness has another aspect, namely ‘Conscience’.

In conclusion, B.K. Jagdish clearly points out that if any philosophy denies the existence of soul or self as a separate conscious entity, then it leads to peacelessness. The learned ones in science try to discover with-out; but they do not try to know the ‘self’ i.e. with-in. Without the scientific knowledge of the self, one would have only a distorted, incomplete or fractured and fragmented world-view.

Conclusion :

From the above discussions, it can be maintained that Consciousness or spiritual energy is quite different from the material forms of energy manifested in the mundane world. The super-mundane entity soul, self, spirit or psyche is eternally existent and conscient in its nature and acts and reacts to the stimuli and also thinks, feels and reaps the fruits of its actions. Hence, one should always endeavour to recognize one’s own true identity i.e. divine, pure, conscient, infinitesimal point of metaphysical energy giving up identification with the physical or the material, then that paves the way towards perfection and by acquiring the completely true knowledge of Self, Supreme Self and the Universe, one should approach to a holistic world-view. In this regard, Brahmākumārīs’ deliberation gains a place of special significance with a comparative philosophical perspective.

References :

1. Eternal Drama of Souls, Matter and God, Part-I, B.K. Jagdish Chander, Prajapita Brahma Kumaris Ishwariya Vishva-Vidyalaya, Pandav Bhavan, Mount Abu, Rajasthan, 1998, Rpt.

2. The Eternal World Drama (Part-II of the series, titled ‘Eternal Drama of Souls, Matter and God’), B.K. Jagdish Chander Hassija, Prajapita Brahma Kumaris Ishwariya Vishwa Vidyalaya, Pandav Bhavan, Mount Abu, Rajasthan, 1985, 3rd Edition.

3. Brahmasūtra-Śāńkara-Bhāşya (S.B, Bra.Sū,), with Ratnaprabhā Commentary, Bholebābā, Bhāratīya Vidyā Prakāshan, Delhi, 2004.

4. Īśādinau Upanişad with Śāńkara Bhāşya (S.B.), Gita Press, Gorakhpur, 2000.

5. Māndūkya Kārikā with Śāńkara Bhāşya (S.B.), Gita Press, Gorakhpur, 1998.

6. The complete Works of Swāmī Vivekānanda, Advaita Ashram, Calcutta, 1977.

7. Science and Spirituality, B.K. Jagdish Chander, Brahmakumaris World Spiritual University, Pandav Bhawan, Mount Abu, 1988.

8. Parallels between Science and Religion and Philosophy and Science - A Critical Review, B.K. Jagdish Chander, Brahma Kumaris Ishwariya Vishwa Vidyalaya, Pandav Bhawan, Mount Abu, Rajasthan, 1994, 1st edition.

9. What is Life with Mind And Matter & Autobiographical Sketches, Erwin Schrodinger, Cambridge University Press, London, 2002.

10. My View of the World, Erwin Schrodinger, Cambridge University Press, 1964

11. The Turning Point, Fritjof Capra, Flamingo, London, 1983.

12. Symmetries And Reflections, Eugene P. Wigner, The M.I.T. Press, USA, 1970.

13. James Jeans : Philosophical Aspects of Modern Science, George Allen and Unwin, 1932.

14. Mysticism and the New Physics, Michael Talbot, Bantom Book, New York, 1971.

15. Do you know your Real Self, B.K. Jagdish Chander, Brahma Kumaris Ishwariya Vishwa Vidyalaya, Pandav Bhawan, Mount Abu, Rajasthan, 1994.

16. Complementarity of Science and Spirituality for better life, B.K Jagdish Chander, Prajapita Brahma Kumaris Ishwariya Vishwa Vidyalaya, Pandav Bhavan, Mount Abu, Rajasthan.

17. A History of Indian Philosophy, 2 Vols, Jadunath Sinha, 1956.

18. A Critical survey of Indian Philosophy, Chandradhar Sharma, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 1990, Rpt.


Scientific Dimensions of Spiritual Energy :
Brahmakumaris’ Perspective

Presented paper on 84th Indian Philosophical Congress, held at University of Mumbai (24th – 27th Oct 2009).


The whole creation is the combined manifestation of both physical and non-physical energies. Science explores the material aspects of nature only through its limited scientific methods and techniques. But the knowledge of Self, the nature of Thought or Consciousness or Spiritual energy i.e. the Primary Reality as clearly accepted by all of the famous scientists and physicists, is beyond the scope of Science because Self is not observable and quantifiable. Hence another advanced discipline called ‘Spiritual Science’ or ‘Meta Science’ is significant to study this prime factor. Spiritual Science has the inner power to explain the concepts and laws of metaphysics by its subtle techniques of deep insight and revelation.

In this regard, Brahmakumaris, a renowned international spirituo-educational organization shows a unique path for the whole mankind towards attainment of both mundane and transcendental perfection by its spiritual knowledge. B.K Jagdish, Chief Spokesperson of this institution and a multi-faceted personality, has made attempts to shed light on the two realities - material and meta-physical assimilating both the laws and methods of Science as well as Spirituality.

In the present research paper, endeavours have been made from Brahmakumaris’ perspective to focus and render a concise note on Spiritual Energy on the basis of Modern Scientific Dimensions especially Quantum Theory, Theory of Relativity, Laws of Thermo-dynamics and so on and to justify the Realities of meta-physics which are logically built on and paralleled with Physics.

1. Spiritual Energy - A point of Non-material light

Spiritual energy has only the inherent, eternal quality called ‘consciousness’ which manifests itself in various forms namely thinking power, judgement power, memory, emotions, impression, feelings etc. and clearly differentiates Spiritual energy from Physical energy which does not possess these qualities. Mind, Intellect and Samskāra (Sub-conscious mind) – these three are the constituting subtle factors of consciousness. Consciousness is not an epiphenomenon of the brain or the electro-magnetic forces at work in the brain and elsewhere, nor can it be considered a product of chemical reactions taking place at the cellular level in the brain and other parts of the body. Souls and Supreme Soul are point sources of spiritual energy where as the rests i.e. the organic and inorganic Matter, the body and the brain etc are within the realm of physical energy. Spiritual energy is the knower, experiencer, observer or possessor that determines the use and purposes of the material things (energy) to get comforts and pleasures out of these. So, spiritual energy is the first or the prime reality and without knowing this, all other knowledge systems would be meaningless, purposeless and worthless.

Soul is a point of light which is spiritual in nature, divine in its original potential overwhelmed with seven divine qualities – Knowledge, Purity, Joy, Peace, Love, Bliss and Power and is different from the mundane light. As matter in its original form is made of particles, particularly sub-atomic light particles (photons), so the conscient energy is also a divine light particle (spiriton). Seven colours of light - Violet, Indigo, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange & Red are reflected through seven spiritual qualities because light is the ultimate form of energy. Having shorter wave-lengths and more energy content, the subtler metaphysical energies controls the physical energies effectively. That’s why human being’s desires and intents are so powerful a force in nature that they can literally organize space-time events.

2. Dimensionless energy has the fifth dimension

A point does not have any dimensions. So, as a point of super-mundane light Soul is a dimensionless reality. According to Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, the world is a four-dimensional space-time continuum. It means all reality exists both in three dimensional space (i.e. latitude, longitude and altitude) and in time (i.e. fourth dimension) and the two are indivisible. All measurements of time are really measurements in space and conversely, measurements in space depend on measurements of time. But in metaphysics, the action of living beings has the fifth dimension, namely the moral dimension. Action of living beings has not only a reaction as one understands it in chemistry or physics but it results either in happiness or sorrow or a mixture of the two for the doer, the soul. Therefore, the moral aspect of action should be considered before doing.

Human being (Conscient soul with body) is neither a machine nor a gene. This sentient person has will and makes effort to achieve goal by using the pronoun ‘I’ for itself as a doer. The soul (spiritual power) which abides in the body* sets the body working by dint of its motive force or thought power. Thought or feeling is the agency which keeps the brain at work and the nervous system functioning. The body by itself can’t do anything. The soul works as a driver or the motive power and the body and its food as the motor power and the brain as the starter, the gear or the steer wheel.

3. Soul-speed – faster than Light-speed

According to the Theory of Relativity, the speed of light is the upper limit to the speed of material objects or particles. But in 1969, scientists namely O.M.P Bilaniuk, E.C.G Sudarshan have predicted on theoretical grounds that a particle can move faster than light which is named by G. Feinberg as Tachyon, a super-luminous particle. On the basis of this view, there are three types of sub-atomic particles –

• Those particles which have a positive physical mass and which move at a speed far less than the speed of light are known as Tradons.
• Those particles which have velocity equal to the speed of light and which possess zero rest-mass, are called as Photons or Luxons.
• Those particles which travel with velocity greater than light and have imaginary rest-mass, are named as Tachyons.

From the above statements, it may be considered that the minutest particles tachyons move at speed faster than light. Generally, the velocity of a particle gradually decreases because of the presence of other particles of the medium through which it passes. The velocity of light in vacuum is 3x108 m/sec, while in water it is 2.25x108 m/sec. But Tachyon’s speed cannot gradually be lowered by any means.

In that way, the soul which has less than zero mass i.e. imaginary mass can move with a velocity faster than light because it being a non-material entity, other particles in the atmosphere or in bodies can’t lower its speed. Gravitation, friction, forces of Nature also cannot affect the incorporeal soul. Thus a soul would take almost no time to leave one body and incarnate into another at a very great distance. It can also go to the Soul World which is far beyond this material world in a flash through thought power.

4. Supreme Soul (God) – Knower of three aspects of Time

Albert Einstein, the world-famous scientist opines that if one can travel faster than light then one can know three aspects of Time. The soul can know the present, past and future or at least it can know what is happening in a particular part of the world at present just a fraction of time. But for this, the soul has to be free of meta-physical pull i.e. attachment with or of others and has to have its meta-physical mirror i.e. Mind clear or its Intellect divinized. Only Supreme Soul, God knows everything what is happening in this whole universe because He can travel at infinite speed called ‘God Speed’ and has no any mental attachments or impurities. That’s why, He is always praised as omniscient.

5. Eternal point of light with elliptical form & Zero mass

According to the theory “Confinement of light in a medium” by the physicists Dr. P.K Jena and Dr. T. Pradhan – “Light of selected frequencies can be confined within the material whose dielectric constant is spherically systematic but decreases radially outward, becoming negative after a certain radius”. On account of this theory, quarks, the tiny sub-atomic particles are confined within protons and neutrons.

So, what is a fact of modern physics about the ultimate form of matter (physical energy) may have its parallel in meta-physics also regarding the ultimate geometrical form of Soul and Supreme Soul (spiritual energies). Thus the entities of meta-physics ‘God’ and ‘Soul’ are such divine and conscient light which are ‘confined’ in their respective oval form (aura). Further, that light is eternal in this form not only because it goes round and round in elliptical orbits of infinitesimal size without ever leaving the medium but also on the following grounds-

B.K Jagdish gives a clear justification about the truth related to these metaphysical energies, referring some of the prime statements of physics –

(i) “If there is any ultimate stuff of the universe, it is pure energy because sub-atomic particles are not made of energy, they are energy. This is what Einstein theorized in 1905; sub-atomic interactions therefore, are interactions of energy with energy. At sub-atomic level, there is no longer a clear distinction between what is and what happens between the actor and the action. At the sub-atomic level, the dancer and the dance are one.” (Quoted from Dancing Wu Li Masters)
This view explains why despite spending energy, the soul-energy is not exhausted. It also explains how the impressions (samskāra) abide in soul, the doer or the experiencer.

(ii) According to physicists, if two particles are made to collide, they are destroyed and in their place, two new ones are created. Both of these decay spontaneously into two additional particles, making them four. This shows that matter, at energy level is indestructible and the energy can act at its level not getting exhausted but only changing forms and multiplying.
This gives a clear hint how despite expending energy, the conscious energy of soul remains intact. Like sub-atomic particles, the soul doesn’t get destroyed, it is immortal forever as it is self-conserving. The spending of its energy regenerates energy though its qualities or attributes may change.

(iii) According to Einstein, matter or mass causes a ‘curvature’ of space-time. Thus in meta-physics, this conscious energy called soul may have a curved form like ellipse.

(iv) Nuclear fission or fusion shows the vast potential energy of a small particle like atom. Similarly, in the domain of meta-physics Soul and Supreme Soul which are minuter than the sub-atomic particles, can have tremendous conscious energy.

(v) Revelation of physics is that neutron is almost eternal because its time of decay is 1031 years which is 1000 billion billion times the age of the universe as calculated by evolution scientists. This final truth about matter gives a similar vision towards the immortality and eternity of the soul. Moreover, it is a fact of science that neutrinos have zero mass or they are almost mass-less. On the same lines, it can be understood that soul also has zero mass.

6. Soul & Supreme Soul (God) – Discrete particles, both are different

The starting point of modern physics, Quantum Theory developed by Max Planck in 1900 and further named by Einstein, brought a great change in the physicists’ concept of matter. Previous to Planck’s Theory, most physicists conceived of the world of nature or matter as a continuum. But the Quantum theory clearly states that the ‘continuous views’ of the world is replaced by a ‘’discrete’ one.

(i) Applying this Quantum theory, Einstein predicted that light is also made up of light particles called photons. Hence, Planck’s Quantum principle and Einstein’s Photo-electric Effect are based on the basic assumption that matter is not continuous, but is discrete and that even light which appears to be continuous is, in fact, made of particles called photons.

(ii) According to Statistical Mechanics, invented by J. C Maxwell and J.W Gibbs – a gas (also air which is a mixture of gases) is also composed of molecules or atoms which are individual in their nature.

(iii) Brownian Motion, developed by Robert Brown also states that liquids are also composed of discrete particles or quanta namely molecules.

All the above theories which come under the name of Quantum Theory, substantiate that nothing is continuous or one whole. Solids, liquids and gases, all forms of radiation including light are made up of discrete particles. This universal law can also be seen in meta-physics.

Now here the concept of God’s or Brahman’s all-pervasiveness propounded by monists, can be evaluated on the basis of Quantum theory.
If God only appears to be a continuous whole but is, in fact, composed or constituted of innumerable particles or innumerable discrete conscious quanta i.e. infinite number of discontinuous or separate souls, then this, however, can’t be because innumerable, separate conscious particles will give to the whole (if there be one) a split personality and such cannot be God’s personality (“Satyam Jñānam Anantam Brahma”) what monists speak about referring upanishadic statements. God is one single person or one single-consciousness. He is not a jumble or conglomeration of consciousness.

A conclusion that can be derived from the Quantum Theory is that Matter can be (and actually is) composed of innumerable discrete particles or quanta, but God cannot be (and is not) composed of numbers of innumerable particles (Souls). In other words, God is not (and cannot be) omnipresent, all-pervading or one who permeates the whole universe. There are innumerable Souls and God is one – supreme among them all.
Quantum theory in physics gives quantum principle in metaphysics and this latter runs counter to the belief that God is one whole, omnipresent or immanent power. Hence, God can only be a discrete particle – an infinitesimal point of light because light is the ultimate form of energy.

7. Entropy (Degradation) in Spiritual Energy & Entropy-reverse

The first and second laws of Thermo-dynamics are universally accepted and are applicable in both the spheres – material and non-material or spiritual.

(i) The first law of Thermo-dynamics, law of conservation states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed; it can only be transformed from one form to another form.

(ii) The second law of Thermo-dynamics says that every time energy is transformed from one state to another, there is a loss in the amount of that form of energy which becomes available to perform work of some kind. This loss in the amount of ‘available energy’ is known as ‘Entropy’. For example – if we burn a piece of coal, even then the total amount of energy remains the same, but due to the process of burning, some part of coal is transformed into sulphur dioxide and exhausts cannot be reburnt to get the same work out of it. This kind of ‘loss’, ‘wastage’ or ‘penalty’ is called Entropy.

The Entropy law states that all energy, in an isolated system moves from an ordered to a disordered state. The state in which energy-concentration is highest and available energy is maximum i.e. where entropy is minimum is also the almost ordered state (Sattvapradhāna avasthā) and where available energy has been highly dissipated and diffused, is the most disordered state (Tamopradhāna avasthā). Another aspect of the law is that whenever we make an attempt to reverse the entropy increase, it is only done by increasing the over-all entropy of the surrounding environment. The scientists Angrist and Herpler say – “Each localized, man-made or machine-made entropy decrease is accompanied by a greater increase in entropy of the surroundings, there by maintaining the required increase in total entropy.”

According to Dharma, the souls have originally 16 degrees level of energy-concentration and gradually, due to entropy, the energy level goes down, so that when there is maximum entropy and the level of energy-concentration is hardly three or four degrees, then Everpure Supreme Soul or God, the Highest Point-source of spiritual energy reverses the spiritual entropy by means of Godly knowledge and Rajyoga and the material entropy gets reversed by means of fission of nuclear weapons, natural calamities etc, so that the Earth, Water, Air and their products get again the maximum energy-concentration.

In other words, when the society has passed through its four stages of Golden age, Silver age, Copper age and Iron age and is in the fifth i.e. the Leap or Confluence age, then God Himself descends on this earth to reverse the entropy. The need of God’s act in such a situation is evident because, according to the Entropy Law, in a closed system, entropy increase cannot be reversed without increasing the entropy in the surroundings and therefore, in real terms, an outside source of energy is required to raise the energy-concentration without lowering the energy level in the surroundings.


From the above discussions it may be concluded that Modern Science and Spirituality are correlated disciplines of knowledge where for both of them, ultimate reality whether i.e. physical or metaphysical, is the prime matter of study. It is clearly observed that the established and undeniable Quantum principle, Relativity theory and Thermodynamics laws governing physical energy are equally applicable to metaphysical energy. Hence, on account of the theory of particle physics, spiritual energies vis. Souls and Supreme Soul are merely the discrete, sub-atomic particles of consciousness or sentient light. This conscient light energy’s manifested seven attributes of bliss, knowledge, peace, love, joy, purity and power are correlated to the seven hues of VIBGYOR. The infinitesimal point of spiritual light is eternal and massless conscient being with personality which has an elliptical form (aura) or energy shield or force field that expands or contracts according to the vibrations of thought- power and situation. The conscious energy, Soul loses its power gradually in due course of time by taking many births in form of bearing new new bodies and when Almighty Source of conscious energy descends on the earth and by receiving His divine connection then it makes itself fully charged with divine powers and restores them for the successive period of time cycle. In this regard, definitely Brahmākumāris’ subtle insight and spiritual knowledge, clearly presented by B.K Jagdish Chander with modern scientific methods regarding spiritual energy, the prime reality, occupy the most significant importance for the upliftment of the whole modern challenging world.


1. Eternal Drama of Souls, Matter and God, Part-I, B.K. Jagdish Chander, Prajapita Brahma Kumaris Ishwariya Vishva-Vidyalaya, Pandav Bhavan, Mount Abu, Rajasthan, 1998, Rpt.

2. The Eternal World Drama (Part-II of the series, titled ‘Eternal Drama of Souls, Matter and God’), B.K. Jagdish Chander Hassija, Prajapita Brahma Kumaris Ishwariya Vishwa Vidyalaya, Pandav Bhavan, Mount Abu, Rajasthan, 1985, 3rd Edition.

3. Spiritual Miscellany (Part-III of ‘World Drama of Souls, Matter and God’), B.K. Jagdish Chander, Prajapita Brahma Kumaris Ishwariya Vishwa Vidyalaya, Pandav Bhavan, Mount Abu, Rajasthan.

4. Science and Spirituality, B.K. Jagdish Chander, Brahmakumaris World Spiritual University, Pandav Bhawan, Mount Abu, 1988.

5. The Tao of Physics : An Exploration of the Parallels Between Modern Physics and Eastern Mysticism, Fritjof Capra, Shambhala publications, Berkeley, California, 1975.

6. Parallels between Science and Religion and Philosophy and Science- A Critical Review, B.K. Jagdish Chander, Brahma Kumaris Ishwariya Vishwa Vidyalaya, Pandav Bhawan, Mount Abu, Rajasthan, 1994, 1st edition.

7. Mysteries of the Universe, B.K. Nityanand Nair, Prajapita Brahma Kumaris Ishwariya Vishva-Vidyalaya, Pandav Bhavan, Mount Abu, Rajasthan, 2008, 1st edition.

8. Parallels between Science and Religion and Philosophy and Science- A Critical Review, B.K. Jagdish Chander, Brahma Kumaris Ishwariya Vishwa Vidyalaya, Pandav Bhawan, Mount Abu, Rajasthan, 1994, 1st edition.

9. Ancient Indian Insights And Modern Science (A UGC Project), Kalpana M. Paranjape, Bhandarkar Oriental research Institute, Pune, 1996, 1st print.

10. Do you know your Real Self, B.K. Jagdish Chander, Brahma Kumaris Ishwariya Vishwa Vidyalaya, Pandav Bhawan, Mount Abu, Rajasthan, 1994.

11. Complementarity of Science and Spirituality for better life, B.K Jagdish Chander, Prajapita Brahma Kumaris Ishwariya Vishwa Vidyalaya, Pandav Bhavan, Mount Abu, Rajasthan.